How Does a Charitable Trust Work?

Charitably-inclined clients often utilize charitable trusts as they give to charities while providing income and estate tax benefits.

A charitable trust can provide an alternative to meeting your wishes for charities and your loved ones, while serving to minimize tax liabilities. Attorneys often utilize them for charitably-inclined clients to reduce estate tax or capital gains tax on assets directed to the the charitable trust. There are pros and cons to consider, according to a recent article titled “Here’s how to create a charitable trust as part of an estate plan” from CNBC. Many families are considering their tax planning for the next few years, aware that the individual income tax rates may go up in the near future, as well as anticipating a drop in the estate tax exclusion amount.  Although the values will be changing, you can see this article for a decent overview of the estate tax itself.  https://www.galliganmanning.com/what-exactly-is-the-estate-tax/

Creating a charitable trust may work to achieve wishes for charities, as well as loved ones.

Speaking very generally, a charitable trust is a set of assets held in a trust to benefit a charity, or possibly a charitable foundation created by the donor, for a period of time.  The time could be very short term for income tax benefits, or much longer term for estate tax benefits. The assets are then managed by the charity for a specific period of time, with some or all of the interest the assets produce benefitting the charity.When the period of time ends, the assets, now called the remainder, can go to heirs or even kept by the charity (although they are usually returned to heirs).

A charitable trust allows you to give generously to an organization that has meaning to you, while providing a generous tax break for you and your heirs. However, to achieve this, the charitable trust must be irrevocable, so you can’t change your mind once it’s set in place.

Charitable trusts provide a way to ensure current or future distributions to you or to your loved ones, depending on your unique circumstances and goals.

The two main types are Charitable Remainder Trusts and Charitable Lead Trusts. Your estate planning attorney will determine which one, if any, is appropriate for you and your family.

A Charitable Remainder Trust, or CRT, provides an income stream either to you or to individuals you select for a set period of time, which is typically your lifetime, your spouse’s lifetime, or the lifetimes of your beneficiaries.  The remaining assets are ultimately distributed to one or more charities.

By contrast, the Charitable Lead Trust (CLT) pays income to one or more charities for a set term, and the remaining assets pass to individuals, such as heirs.

For CRTs and CLTs, the annual distribution during the initial term can happen in two ways; a Unitrust (CRUT or CLUT) or an Annuity Trust (CRAT or CLAT).

In a Unitrust, the income distribution for the coming year is calculated at the end of each calendar year and it changes, as the value of the trust increases or decreases.

In an Annuity Trust, the distribution is a fixed annual distribution determined as a percentage of the initial funding value and does not change in future years.

Interest rates are a key element in determining whether to use a CLT or a CRT. Right now, with interest rates at historically low levels, a CRT yields minimal income.  The key benefits to a CRT include income tax deductions, avoidance of capital gains taxation, annual income and a wish to support nonprofit organizations.

Your estate planning attorney can work with you to determine whether a charitable trust  will serve your charitable strategy and achieves your goals of supporting the charity and building your legacy.

Reference: CNBC (Dec. 22, 2020) “Here’s how to create a charitable trust as part of an estate plan”

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Is Transferring the House to Children a Good Idea?

Clients frequently ask this question, especially as mom or dad is aging and perhaps living in assisted living or some other senior care arrangement.  Many try to do so using online forms, and find later that it was a mistake.  Transferring your house to your children while you’re alive may avoid probate, but gifting a home also can mean a rather large and unnecessary tax bill or could effect eligibility for long term care benefits. It also may place your house at risk, if your children get sued or file for bankruptcy

You also could be making a mistake, if you hope it will help keep the house from being consumed by nursing home bills.

There are better ways to transfer a house to your children, as well as a little-known potential fix that may help even if the giver has since died, says Considerable’s recent article entitled “Should you transfer your house to your adult kids?”

If a parent signs a quitclaim to give her son the house and then dies, it can potentially mean a tax bill of thousands of dollars for the son.

Families who see this error in time can undo the damage, by gifting the house back to the parent.

People will also transfer a home to try to qualify for Medicaid, but any gifts or transfers made within five years of applying for Medicaid can result in a penalty period when seniors are disqualified from receiving benefits.  A capable elder law attorney can advise you on better ways to address this, as well as potential corrections if necessary.

In addition, transferring your home to another person can expose you to their financial problems because their creditors could file liens on your home and, depending on state law, take some or most of its value. If the child divorces, the house could become an asset that must be divided as part of the marital estate.

Section 2036 of the Internal Revenue Code says that if the parent were to retain a “life interest” in the property, which includes the right to continue living there, the home would remain in her estate rather than be considered a completed gift. However, there are rules for what constitutes a life interest, including the power to determine what happens to the property and liability for its bills.

There are other ways to avoid probate. Many states and DC permit “transfer on death” deeds that let homeowners transfer their homes at death without probate.  Texas has both transfer on death deeds and “Lady Bird Deeds,” and an attorney can advise you on the differences and the best way to utilize them with your estate plan.  An excellent solution is to use a living trust which allows assets it owns or receives at death to avoid probate.  Having the trust own the property, or possibly using a deed to convey the property to the the trust at death, are excellent solutions.

If you are interested in learning more, please see this article for various ways to own and hold real estate.  https://www.galliganmanning.com/how-to-own-your-real-estate/  

In sum, there are many unexpected consequences to transferring your home to your children, so it is important to discuss the best way to convey the home to your loved ones with an attorney.

Reference: Considerable (Sep. 18) “Should you transfer your house to your adult kids?”

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Art and Other Collections in an Estate Plan

Are you a collector? Is your collection included in your estate plan?
Are you a collector? Is your collection included in your estate plan?

Many people have collections about which they are quite passionate: The collections may be very valuable, for example, art collections, coins, stamps, or designer handbags, or they may have more sentimental than monetary value, such as political bumper stickers, postcards, or rocks. Regardless of its dollar value, if you have a collection, it should be included in your estate plan. You should make arrangements in advance to ensure that it is handled in the way you want, and if it is worth a lot of money, that its value is maximized. The following are a few steps you should take to ensure your wishes for your collection are followed:

Collect relevant documentation. If you have a valuable collection, it is important to create a catalog describing each piece, including photographs, bills of sale, and appraisals. If you have an insurance policy covering some or all of the items, it should be kept with your important documents as well.

Discuss your collection with your family members and loved ones. Although you may have invested a lot of time and money in your collection, and may have a strong emotional attachment to it, it is not unusual for family members not to share your passion about your collection. Try to understand their perspective if this is the case in your family. It is important to discuss this with them to ensure that your estate plan is designed to minimize the burden your family could face in dealing with the collection when you pass away. However, it is also important to find out from your family members if anyone would like to inherit certain pieces or the collection as a whole. If more than one person would like to receive certain items, it is prudent to figure out a reasonable solution in advance. This will help to avoid conflict between family members after you pass away.

Pass it on to loved ones. If you do pass your collection to family members, consider giving them your permission to sell or donate it. If one or more family members is interested in keeping it, consider whether to also provide a cash gift to help those beneficiaries with the costs of maintaining it. If the collection is one of your more valuable assets, take steps to ensure that other beneficiaries receive an equivalent inheritance, for example, by making them the beneficiaries of a life insurance policy. Alternatively, you could consider transferring your entire collection to a trust or a limited liability company that could manage the collection for the benefit of multiple generations.

Donate your collection to a museum or charitable organization. It is important to check with the organization to which you plan to donate the collection to make sure that it is able to handle housing or selling it, both of which could involve more expense than you might expect. Such organizations may request that a donation of cash accompany the bequest to offset the cost of maintaining the collection. Keep in mind that only a donation to a public charity will be tax deductible by your estate (or you, if you make a lifetime gift), and there are certain circumstances when even donations to a public charity will not be deductible.

Sell the collection. If you would like your family to sell your collection or anticipate that they will sell it, it will be helpful to them and likely minimize delays if you provide the names of dealers or auction companies that specialize in the type of collection you have, as this type of information may not be as easy to find for those who are not collectors. To prevent the collection from being sold for much less than its actual value, consider appointing an executor who is knowledgeable about it and its value.

Consider the tax implications. The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 lowered the maximum capital gains rate on gains from the sale of most assets to 20 percent but left the maximum rate on gains from the sale of collectibles at 28 percent. If you pass your collection on to a child or other beneficiary when you pass away, that person will have a tax basis in the property based on the value on the date of your death (i.e., a stepped-up basis). This will be the basis used to determine the amount of taxable gain and income tax the beneficiary must pay if the beneficiary eventually sells some or all of the items in the collection. As a result, if your collection has increased in value over time, your beneficiary’s tax bill will be lower if you wait until your death to gift the collection to them rather than making a lifetime gift—in that case, their basis would be the amount you originally paid, resulting in a larger taxable gain. On the other hand, if the collection has not increased in value, you could consider taking advantage of the annual or lifetime gift tax exclusions to make outright gifts of your collection while you are still living.

Make sure it is properly valued. Appraisals are particularly important, as they will help your executor, trustee, and family members determine the value of the collection. Be sure to use an appraiser knowledgeable about the particular type of items in your collection. This will ensure that these items are not sold for a price far below their actual worth or donated because of a lack of knowledge of their true value. Also, it will help you to make decisions about how to provide equitable gifts to your beneficiaries and whether to make gifts from your collection during your life or at death.

Finding Help to Design an Estate Plan for Your Special Collection

Your collection likely means a lot to you. It also adds another level of complexity to your estate plan. An experienced estate planning attorney can help you think through your goals and develop an estate plan that will allow you to rest assured that your collection will be handled according to your wishes after you pass away.

You may also be interested in https://www.galliganmanning.com/when-to-update-your-estate-plan/.

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