Medicaid is a government program used by Americans to pay long-term care, typically for nursing homes or in-home care. What some people don’t realize is that Medicaid seeks reimbursement for money spent on someone’s behalf after they pass away. The Medicaid Estate Recovery Program (MERP) is used to recoup costs paid toward long term care, so that the program can be more affordable for the government, says the article “What is Medicaid Estate Recovery?” from kake.com. Beneficiaries of Medicaid recipients are often surprised to learn that this impacts them directly, and are even more surprised that you can protect assets from Medicaid recovery with some planning.
Medicare was created to help pay for healthcare costs of Americans once they reach age 65. It covers many different aspects of healthcare expenses, but not costs for long-term or nursing home care. That is the role of Medicaid.
Medicaid helps pay the costs of long-term care for aging seniors. It is used when a person has not purchased long-term health care insurance or does not have enough money to pay for long-term care out of their own funds. Medicaid is sometimes used by individuals who have taken steps to protect their assets in advance by using trusts or other estate planning tools. See here for more detail. https://www.galliganmanning.com/can-i-afford-in-home-elderly-care/
The Medicaid Estate Recovery program allows Medicaid to be reimbursed for costs that include the costs of staying in a nursing home or other long-term care facility, home and community-based services, medical services received through a hospital when the person is a long-term care patient and prescription drug services for long-term care recipients.
When the recipient passes away, Medicaid is allowed to pursue assets from the estate. In fact, Federal law requires the states to have such a program. Now, this is critical to recognize, but the scope of Medicaid varies widely between what state provided the benefits. For the most part it means any assets that would be subject to the probate process after the recipient passes. That may include bank accounts, real estate, vehicles, or other real property. Texas Medicaid recovery is happily limited to the estate. So, there are many options to protect assets from Medicaid recovery in Texas.
In some states, recovery may be made from assets that are not subject to probate: jointly owned bank accounts between spouses, payable on death bank accounts, real estate owned in joint tenancy with right of survivorship, living trusts and any assets a Medicaid recipient has an interest in.
An estate planning attorney will know what assets Medicaid can use for recovery and how to protect the family from being financially devastated.
While it is true that Medicaid can’t take your home or assets before the recipient passes, it is legal for Medicaid to have a claim to assets before the beneficiaries, similar to the way other creditors of a decedent must be satisfied before beneficiaries receive property. Let’s say your mother needs to move into a nursing home. If she dies, you’ll have to satisfy Medicaid’s claim before you can take possession or will pay the claim as part of a sale.
Strategic planning can be done in advance by the individual who may need Medicaid in the future. One way to do this is to purchase long-term care insurance, which is the strategy of personal responsibility. Another is removing assets from the probate process. Married couples can make that sure all assets are owned jointly with right of survivorship, or to purchase an annuity that transfers to the surviving spouse, when the other spouse passes away.
In most cases we can advance clients on how to change the the titling of their accounts to protect assets from Medicaid recovery before the person passes away. We may also be able to create a Medicaid Asset Protection Trust, which may remove assets from being counted for eligibility.
As a final point, clients often encounter the medicaid claim in the estate, which is the first time an attorney is involved in the process. Now, you may not have the same options to protect assets from Medicaid recovery because you’ll have lost prospective planning, but their are exceptions to recovery and ways to defend against the claim. They are all very time sensitive however, so you should reach out to an attorney immediately upon encountering them.
Speak with an estate planning attorney to learn how to prepare for yourself or your parent’s future needs. The earlier the planning begins, the better chances of successfully protecting the family.
Reference: kake.com (Feb. 6, 2021) “What is Medicaid Estate Recovery?”