What Is “Income in Respect of Decedent?”

Estate administrators file a decedent’s taxes, and often that means income in respect of a decedent, which is post-death income.

While in a consultation recently, an executor brought up a discussion with a prior attorney.  The executor was told that the estate was “too small” to worry about taxes.  Although that was true for one tax, i.e. the Federal estate tax, there are actually multiple death taxes for executors to consider in an estate administration, most of which apply in more cases than the estate tax and are often overlooked by executors.

For example, every executor, trustee or administrator should consider “income in respect of a decedent” or “IRD”.  This kind of income has its own tax rules and they may be complex, says Yahoo! Finance in a recent article simply titled “Income in Respect of a Decedent (IRD).”

Incidentally, if you were looking for information on the estate tax, here are the basics.  https://www.galliganmanning.com/what-exactly-is-the-estate-tax/

Income in respect of a decedent is any income received after a person has died, but not included in their final tax return. When the executor begins working on a decedent’s personal finances, things could become challenging, especially if the person owned a business, had many bank and investment accounts, or if they were unorganized.

What kinds of funds are considered IRDs?

  • Uncollected salary, wages, bonuses, commissions and vacation or sick pay.
  • Stock options exercised
  • Taxable distributions from retirement accounts
  • Distributions from deferred compensation
  • Bank account interest (very common one)
  • Dividends and capital gains from investments
  • Accounts receivable paid to a small business owned by the decedent (cash basis only)

As a side note, this should serve as a reminder of how important it is to create and update a detailed list of financial accounts, investments and income streams for executors to review in order to prevent possible losses and to correctly identify sources of income.

How is IRD taxed? IRD is income that would have been included in the decedent’s tax returns, if they were still living but wasn’t included in the final tax return. Where the IRD is reported depends upon who receives the income. If it is paid to the estate, it needs to be included on the fiduciary return. However, if IRD is paid directly to a beneficiary, then the beneficiary needs to include it in their own tax return.

If estate taxes are paid on the IRD, tax law does allow for an income tax deduction for estate taxes paid on the income. If the executor or beneficiaries missed the IRD, an estate planning attorney will be able to help amend tax returns to claim it.

Retirement accounts are also impacted by IRD. Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) must be taken from IRA, 401(k) and similar accounts as owners age. The RMDs for the year a person passes are also included in their estate. The combination of estate taxes and income taxes on taxable retirement accounts can reduce the size of the estate, and therefore, inheritances. Tax law allows for the deduction of estate taxes related to amounts reported as IRD to reduce the impact of this “double taxation.”

The key here is to work diligently with your tax preparer in an estate or trust administration to identify, report and pay for IRD.  Happily, estates have several costs which might be deductible to the IRD paid by the estate, such as funeral or administrative costs, meaning it is very possible no tax will be due even where there is substantial IRD.

In all events, if you are administering an estate you want to ensure IRD is addressed, and paid for if necessary.  One of the most important aspects of estate administration is providing a sense of finality, knowing that the legal and financial steps are finished so you can focus on your family in a difficult time.  Addressing the IRD ensures you don’t receive a letter from the IRS years later about unreported income.

Reference: Yahoo! Finance (Oct. 6, 2021) “Income in Respect of a Decedent (IRD)”

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Massive Changes to RMDs from Stimulus Package

The coronavirus stimulus package extended IRA contribution deadlines and waived 2020 RMDs.

Several of the provisions that were signed into law in the stimulus package relief bill can taken advantage of immediately, reports Financial Planning in the article “Major changes in RMDs and retirement contributions in $2T stimulus plan.” Here are some highlights.

Extended deadline for 2019 IRA contributions. With the tax return filing date extended to July 15, 2020 from April 16, the date for making 2019 contributions to IRA and Roth IRA contributions has also been extended to the same date. Those contributions normally must be made by April 15 of the following year, but this is no normal year. There have never been extensions to the April 15 deadline, even when taxpayers filed for extensions.

When this tax return deadline was extended, most financial professionals doubted the extension would only apply to IRA contributions, but the IRS responded in a timely manner, issuing guidance titled “Filing and Payment Deadlines Questions and Answers.” These changes give taxpayers more time to decide if they still want to contribute, and how much. Job losses and market downturns that accompanied the COVID-19 outbreak have changed the retirement savings priorities for many Americans. Just be sure when you do make a contribution to your account, note that it is for 2019 because financial custodians may just automatically consider it for 2020. A phone call to confirm will likely be in order.

RMDs are waived for 2020. As a result stimulus package, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (CARE Act), Required Minimum Distributions from IRAs are waived. Prior to the stimulus package’s enactment, 2020 RMDs would be very high as they would be based on the substantially higher account values of December 31, 2019 instead of the current lower values due to the drop in the market. If not for this relief, IRA owners would have to withdraw and pay tax on a much larger percentage of their IRA balances. By eliminating the RMD for 2020, tax bills will be lower for those who don’t need to take the money from their accounts. For 2019 RMDs not yet taken, the waiver still applies. It also applies to IRA owners who turned 70 ½ in 2019. This was a surprise, as the SECURE Act just increased the RMD age to 72 for those who turn 70 ½ in 2020 or later.  See here for a much fuller description of how the SECURE Act changed retirement planning.  https://www.galliganmanning.com/the-secure-act/

IRA beneficiaries subject to the five- year rule. Another group benefiting from these new rules are beneficiaries who inherited in 2015 or later and are subject to the 5-year payout rule. Those beneficiaries may have inherited through a will or were beneficiaries of a trust that didn’t qualify as a designated beneficiary. They now have one more year—until December 31, 2021—to withdraw the entire amount in the account. Beneficiaries who inherited from 2015-2020 now have six years, instead of five.

Additional relief for retirement accounts. The new act also waives the early 10% early distribution penalty on up to $100,000 of 2020 distributions from IRAs and company plans for ‘affected individuals.’ The tax will still be due, but it can be spread over three years and the funds may be repaid over the three-year period.

Many changes have been implemented from the stimulus package. Speak with your estate planning attorney to be sure that you are taking full advantage of the changes and not running afoul of any new or old laws regarding retirement accounts.

Reference: Financial Planning (March 27, 2020) “Major changes in RMDs and retirement contributions in $2T stimulus plan”

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