Five IRA Rollover Mistakes to Avoid

Making a mistake when rolling your 401(k) to an IRA could result in unexpected taxes and possible penalties.
Making a mistake when rolling your 401(k) to an IRA could result in unexpected taxes and possible penalties.

Recent changes in the job market have led to an increase in IRA rollovers, but at the same time, people are making more mistakes when transferring their employer related retirement accounts to an IRA, reports The Wall Street Journal in a recent article, “The Biggest Mistake People Make With IRA Rollovers.” These IRA rollover mistakes may result in additional taxes and penalties.

Done properly, rolling funds from a 401(k) to a traditional IRA offers you more flexibility and control. A company retirement plan may limit you to a half-dozen or so investment choices; but, depending on the IRA custodian, the IRA owner may choose investment options ranging from stocks and bonds to mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, certificates of deposits or annuities.

However, if you are considering rolling over an employer related retirement plan to an IRA, make sure to avoid these common IRA rollover mistakes:

Mistake #1:  Taking a lump-sum distribution of the 401(k) funds instead of moving the funds directly to an IRA custodian. The clock starts ticking when you do what’s called an “indirect rollover.” Miss the 60-day deadline and the amount is considered a distribution, included as gross income and taxable. If you’re younger than 59½, you might also get hit with a 10% early withdrawal penalty.

There is an exception: if you are an employee with highly appreciated stock of the company that you are leaving in your 401(k), it’s considered a “Net Unrealized Appreciation,” or NUA. In this case, you may take the lump-sum distribution and pay taxes at the ordinary income-tax rate, but only on the cost basis, or the adjusted original value, of the stock. The difference between the cost basis and the current market value is the NUA, and you can defer the tax on the difference until you sell the stock.

Mistake #2:  Not realizing when you do an indirect rollover, your workplace plan administrator will usually withhold 20% of your account and send it to the IRS as pre-payment of federal income tax on the distribution. This will happen even if your plan is to immediately transfer the money into an IRA. If too much tax was withheld, you’ll get a refund from the IRS.

Mistake #3:  Rolling over funds from a 401(k) to an IRA before taking a Required Minimum Distribution or RMD. If you’re required to take an RMD for the year that you are receiving the distribution (age 72 and over), neglecting this will result in an excess contribution, which could be subject to a 6% penalty.

Mistake #4:   Rolling funds from a 401(k) to a Roth IRA and neglecting to pay taxes immediately. If you move money from a 401(k) to a Roth IRA, it’s a conversion and taxes are due when you make the transfer. However, if you have some after-tax dollars left in the 401(k), you can make a tax-free distribution of those funds to a Roth IRA.

Mistake #5:  Not knowing the limits when moving funds from one IRA to another, if you do a 60-day rollover. The general rule is this: you are allowed to do only one distribution from an IRA to another IRA within a 12-month period. Make more than one distribution and it’s considered taxable income. Tack on a 10% penalty, if you’re under 59½.

Reference: The Wall Street Journal (Oct. 1, 2021) “The Biggest Mistake People Make With IRA Rollovers”

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Three Retirement Myths to Avoid

 There are three common retirement myths relating to retirement age, medical coverage and social security that clients often suffer from.

While you’re busy planning to retire, chances are good you’ll run into more than a few retirement myths, things that people who otherwise seem sincere and sensible are certain of. However, don’t get waylaid because any one of these retirement myths could do real harm to your plans for an enjoyable retirement. That’s the lesson from a recent article titled “Let’s Leave These 3 Retirement Myths in 2020’s Dust” from Auburn.pub.

You can keep working as long as you want. It’s easy to say this when you are healthy and have a secure job but counting on a delayed retirement strategy leaves you open to many pitfalls, especially with the effect COVID-19 has had on the workplace. Nearly 40% of current retirees report having retired earlier than planned, according to a study from the Aegon Center for Longevity and Retirement. Job losses and health issues are the reasons most people gave for their change of plans. A mere 15% of those surveyed who left the workplace before they had planned on retiring, said they did so because their finances made it possible.

Decades before you plan to retire, you should have a clear understanding of how much of a nest egg you need to retire, while living comfortably during your senior years—which may last for one, two, three or even four decades. If your current plan is far from hitting that target, don’t expect working longer to make up for the shortfall. You might have no control over when you retire, so saving as much as you can right now to prepare is the best defense.

Medicare will cover all of your medical care. A common retirement myth is that Medicare will cover all of your medical costs and consequently retirees under plan for their needs.  Medicare will cover some of costs, but it doesn’t pay for everything. Original Medicare (Parts A and B) covers hospital visits and outpatient care but doesn’t cover vision and dental care. It also doesn’t cover prescription drug costs. Most people do not budget enough in their retirement income plans to cover the costs of medical care, from wellness visits to long term care.   Clients often insist they can afford or don’t believe they will need long term care expenses,  but often are mistaken.  You can see this article for a flavor of those issues.  https://www.galliganmanning.com/can-i-afford-in-home-elderly-care/   Medicare Advantage plans can provide more extensive coverage, but they often come with higher premiums. The average out-of-pocket healthcare cost for most people is $300,000 throughout retirement.

Social Security may disappear.  A final retirement myth is that social security will cover or mostly cover a retirees needs.  Nearly 90% of Americans depend upon Social Security to fund at least a part of their retirement, according to a Gallup poll, making this federal program a lifeline for Americans. Social Security does have some financial challenges. Since the early 1980s, the program took in more money in payroll taxes than it paid out in benefits, and the surplus went into a trust fund. However, the enormous number of Baby Boomers retiring made 2020, saw the first year the program paid out more money than it took in.

To compensate, it has had to make up the difference with withdrawals from the trust funds. As the number of retirees continues to rise, the surplus may be depleted by 2034. At that point, the Social Security Administration will rely on payroll taxes for retiree benefits. Assuming Congress doesn’t find a solution before 2034, benefits may be reduced or severely impacted.

Saving for retirement is challenging but focusing on the facts will help you remain focused on retirement goals, and not ghost stories. Your retirement planning should also include preparing and maintaining your estate plan.  This is an excellent time to sit with your financial advisor to determine whether your retirement planning is safe from these three myths.

Reference: Auburn.pub (Dec. 13, 2020) “Let’s Leave These 3 Retirement Myths in 2020’s Dust”

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